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明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまして

Why is it there? And does it make any difference in meaning compared to dictionary form for example?

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According to 明鏡国語辞典:

て ㊁〘終助〙
❷ 《「…でして」「…まして」「…してしまって」の形で》原因や理由、状況を示して釈明を表す。「お子様限定のサービスでし。」「電車が遅れまし。」「遅くなりまし。」「つい忘れちゃっ。」

The て in your example is used to express a cause, reason or explanation/vindication.

明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまし

"Tomorrow we're going to see cherry blossoms and I'm (we're) wondering if you'd like to join us (and that's why I came to you / that's why I'm calling you / that's why I just asked if you'd be free tomorrow, etc.)"

→ indirectly/politely inviting "Would you like to join us?" (as pointed out in the comment)


「~~先生もいっしょにいらっしゃらないかなと思いまし。」 would just be a statement to say that you wondered/thought of that.

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    I was wondering about this. Given the lack of context... and given the politeness level, couldn't this be a rather indirect way of asking the teacher is they would like to come along (assuming it's being spoken to the teacher). And if not spoken to the teacher, it sounds a bit like an overly polite soliloquy to oneself. Anyhow, I'd be interested to hear what your thoughts are on these possible interpretations.
    – A.Ellett
    Jul 2, 2017 at 2:47
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    @A.Ellett Oh yes, it's practically saying "Would you like to join us?" 「明日みんなで桜を見に行くんですが、先生もいっしょにいらっしゃいませんか?」 in an indirect and polite way. It's not a soliloquy to oneself. Thank you for the comment.
    – Chocolate
    Jul 2, 2017 at 5:57

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