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医者 or 先生?Which is the correct term to address my doctor? I actually received many different responses from chatting with Japanese. Is there a preferred term?

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先生 is used as a way of address when speaking directly to the individual or when referring to the individual in communication with others. 医者 is the actual profession of "physician" or more colloquial "doctor" and might be used when speaking out of context.

昨日は医者に診てもらった (Yesterday I went to the doctor)

said in context to someone who didn't know the speaker had a health issue.

Compare with:

先週川口先生に診てもらった佐藤ですが… (My name is Satō, and I saw Dr. Kawaguchi last week...)

said in the context of the speaker addressing the reception staff at the hospital.

I hope this demonstrates the difference in usage. Generally the cases in which you would use 医者、医者さん、or お医者さん is when asking if someone is a physician. Speaking to others at the hospital or the physician directly you should use 先生. However, I find that in some Japanese hospitals it's expected that you don't speak unless being spoken too so you probably can manage without using 先生 though it is good to know in case the nurses tell you to wait for the doctor.

Besides the well-known usage for teachers, 先生 is also used to address other figures of higher learning or respect, lawyers, politicians, etc.

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I think Sudachi's answer is perfect, so I up-voted it.

Besides the well-known usage for teachers, 先生 is also used to address other figures of higher learning or respect, lawyers, politicians, etc.

This is quoted from Sudachi's answer.
I'll show you an interesting saying which is written here relating to the quotation:

大辞林 第三版の解説
せんせいといわれるほどのばかでなし【先生{せんせい}と言{い}われるほどの馬鹿{ばか}でなし】

〔先生という敬称が必ずしも敬意を伴うものではないことから〕
先生と言われて気分をよくするほど、馬鹿ではない。また、そう呼ばれていい気になっている者をあざけって言う言葉。

Roughly translated as:

Literally: I am not stupid or a fool enough to be called [先生]{sensei}.

【 The maxim that came from that the honorific name of [先生]{sensei} is not necessarily accompanied by respect 】
I am not stupid enough to make myself feel better as being called Sensei.
Also, the word with Sensei is used to ridicule a person who becomes pleased to be called so.

But, you can call Dr. Kawaguchi "sensei" with confidence.

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