The word 生徒(せいと) means "pupil", but what exactly is/was a 生徒 in Japanese culture? And how is a 生徒 different from a 学生? And in what context would you use the word?
According to my Japanese dictionary, 広辞林, the two words are defined as follows:
- 生徒 -- refers to a student receiving an education from a fixed location such as in middle or high school or from under a tutor etc.
- 学生 -- refers to a someone who attends classes, but in particular someone who studies at university.
From this it seems that 学生 is the more general term covering a wider range of students including those in the category of 生徒. As @naruto pointed out in the comments, 学生 isn't quite as general as those definitions might leave one to think (now I'm a bit disappointed in my dictionary). Apparently, 生徒 is the more appropriate terms for a student taking a culinary class, or swimming lessons, or studying martial arts, and I would therefor imagine a number of other things.
In the Japanese school system, it depends on whether you go to elementary school, junior/high school, or university.
Kindergarten or daycare - 園児
Elementary school - 児童
Junior high or high school - 生徒
University - 学生