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I've been told の is formal, thus のです is grammatically right.
Yet, のだ is not. Only んだ would be correct.

Therefore, 「んだぜ、んさ、んだぞ、んぜ、んぞ」 are correct and 「のだぜ、のだぞ、のさ、のぜ、のぞ」 are not.

Do you agree? Why or why not?

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    Yet, のだ is not. Only んだ would be correct. Hmm? I don't think のだ is incorrect... – Chocolate Jun 21 '17 at 6:40
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As for the difference between んだぜ/んだぞ and のだぜ/のだぞ, yes, the former is far more common, but the latter form is still grammatical and occasionally heard. A fictional pompous person may well talk like ~のだぜ/のだぞ with their close friends.

んぜ/んぞ/のぜ/のぞ do not exist.

  • 見たんだぜ。見たんだぞ。: OK, informal male speech
  • 見たのだぜ。見たのだぞ。: Less common. pompous and/or old-fashioned
  • 見たんぜ。見たんぞ。見たのぜ。見たのぞ。: ungrammatical

I don't know why, but のさ is more common than んさ, and のよ is more common than んよ. んさ/んよ sounds a bit dialectal to me.

  • 見たのさ。: OK, informal male speech
  • 見たのよ。: OK, informal female speech
  • 見たんさ。見たんよ。: dialectal

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