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In relation to the Classical Japanese orthography what are the Long vowel (長音 Chōon) rule and the Palatalized long vowel (開拗長音 Kaiyōchōon) rule?

What would be some examples of them?

  • I'm not sure what do you mean by "rule" here; can you write a bit more on where did you find this concept? It sounds like this may refer to how e.g. だう in the old kana orthography is now read as (-au changed to a long vowel, i.e. diphthong coalescence), and how e.g. きやう in the old kana orthography is now read as kyō (palatalized long vowel). – melissa_boiko Jun 19 '17 at 11:00
  • As I remember, 開拗長音 corresponds to "palatalized long open vowel", doesn't it? – broccoli forest Jun 19 '17 at 17:11
  • @leoboiko They were mentioned in an article in Wikipedia : (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…) I also thought they had something to do with the だう case you mentioned, (the second case seems to be the Y-row (ヤ行 Ya-gyō) rule, as they refer to it), but I couldn't find anything about them at all. – user18849 Jun 19 '17 at 18:50
  • @broccoliforest according to wikipedia at least, Japanese 開拗音 correspond to /j/-palatalization (kya/kyu/kyo), being opposed to 合拗音/円唇化 which is labialization (kwa/gwa). So the qualifier 開 doesn't seem to refer to open/close vowels in this case. – melissa_boiko Jun 20 '17 at 8:11
  • Wow, that English Wikipedia article is a mess @user18849. I suggest you use Japanese sources on 旧仮名遣い/歴史的仮名遣い (like this), or check out Wixted's Handbook to Classical Japanese or Shirane's Classical Japanese. The English Wikipedia article makes it seem a lot more complex than it is. – melissa_boiko Jun 20 '17 at 8:21
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「古典的仮名遣い」あるいは「歴史的仮名遣い」と言われるものの質問と判断しました。 百人一首など日本語の古典や和歌を読むときに必要ですね。
I judged it as a question of what is said to be "classical kana orthography" or "historical kana orthography". It is necessary when reading Japanese classics and Japanese poetry such as Hyakunin Isshu.

文献としては、
読み物としてここにありますが、ご希望のルールについては、こちらの方がまとまっていると思います。
As a reference, here is one as a reading material, but I think this one is gathered neatly as the rule of your choice.

ルールを抜き出すと次のようになります。
I extracted the rule. It becomes as follows:

歴史的仮名遣い現代仮名遣い  
Historical kanaModern kana Example
orthography   orthography

  • 「ぢ」→「じ」     はぢ→はじ 恥
  • 「づ」→「ず」     めづらし→めずらし 珍し
  • 「む」→「ん」      かむなづき→かんなづき 神無月
  • 「ゐ」→「い」     ゐなか→いなか 田舎
  • 「ゑ」→「え」     こゑ→こえ 声
  • 「を」→「お」     をかし→おかし 可笑し
  • 「くわ」→「か」    くゎがく→かがく 科学
  • 「ぐわ」→「が」    ぐゎん→がん 雁
  • 語頭以外のハ行→ワ行  つはもの→つわもの 強者、いふ→いう 言う、にほひ→におい 匂い
  • 「ア段の音+う(ふ)」→「オ段+う」 かうべ→こうべ 首/頭
  • 「イ段の音+う(ふ)」→「イ段+ゅう」 きふ→きゅう 急
  • 「エ段の音+う(ふ)」→「イ段+ょう」 てふてふ→ちょうちょう 蝶々、けふ→きょう 今日
  • pseudonymは、「平仮名」などの「[仮名]{かな}」という意味ではなく、「[仮名]{かめい}」「偽名」という意味の語だと思いますが・・ – Chocolate Jun 20 '17 at 8:20

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