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To "stock up" on something (in a sense of buying a large amount of something) could 買い込む be used? Or is there another way to say this, like ストックする?

I feel that both can be used, depending on the formality level (in which ストックする would be the most informal ofc.)

パーティーに飲み物を買い込むつもりだ

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(1) パーティー 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ

I think this expression needs some examinations.
Since に in パーティ has various functions, the sentence (1) is interpreted in many ways that are shown as follows by the person who hears it whether the interpretation is natural or not.

(2) パーティー のために 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
(2)' パーティー のための 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
I'm going to stock up on beverages for the party.
(3) パーティー に備えて 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
I'm going to stock up on beverages to prepare for the party.

(4) パーティー 会場に 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
I'm going to stock up on beverages and carry them into the party venue.
(5) パーティー の日に 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
I'm going to stock up on beverages on the day of the party.
(6) パーティー を機会に 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ
I'm going to stock up on beverages taking advantage of the party.

If your intention is "I'm going to stock up on beverages for the party" and everyone in the conversation knows the party, the sentence (1) is simple and enough to express the meaning of (2), (2)' or (3).

Aside from this condition, the sentence (1) is so ambiguous that I would recommend you to use the sentence (2)-(7) instead depending on your intention.

If your intention is "I'm going to stock up on beverages for the party", I would recommend you to use sentence (7) rather than to use sentence (2) or (2)', though the sentence (7) has a meaning of "I'm going to stock up on beverages served for the party", because sentence (7) is simpler than sentence (2) or (2)'.

(7) パーティー 飲み物を買い込むつもりだ

Anyway, you could use 買い込む for to "stock up" on something (in a sense of buying a large amount of something).

Or is there another way to say this, like ストックする?

Yes, there is.
When you stock up on daily foods or something, you say like 買いだめする.
In this case, you buy a large amount of something at a time when it is cheap, and you would consume it gradually for a long time.
During the long time, the something is kept being stocked, so だめ, which is the euphonic change-form from ため that means to stock, in 買いだめする is effective to depict the state of being stocked.

As for the difference between 買い込む and 買いだめする, the former phrase is paid attention only at the time of buying something, on the other hand, 買いだめする is paid attention during all the time when something is being stocked.

At the party you usually consume all things that you stocked up on at a time. So パーティーの飲み物を買い込むつもりだ and パーティーの飲み物を買いだめするつもりだ are both natural. But in the case you stock up on daily foods or something, 食料品{しょくりょうひん} groceries を買いだめする is more natural than 食料品を買い込む.

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    パーティーの飲み物を買い込むつもりだ is natural, isn't it? – Yuuichi Tam Jun 8 '17 at 7:50
  • @YuuichiTam: パーティーの飲み物を買い込むつもりだ and パーティーの飲み物を買いだめするつもりだ are both natural. But in case you stock up on daily foods or something, 食料品を買いだめする is more natural than 食料品を買い込む – mackygoo Jun 8 '17 at 7:59
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    Sorry, what I wanted to say don't seem to be conveyed to you. I wanted to say that パーティーの is natural, not パーティーに. – Yuuichi Tam Jun 8 '17 at 8:09
  • @Yuuichi Tam: I'm sorry I misunderstood your question. Yes, パーティーの飲み物を買い込むつもりだ is correct. I should have read the questioner's sentence パーティーに飲み物を買い込むつもりだ more carefully. This is incorrect. – mackygoo Jun 8 '17 at 13:22
  • I think ~のために, ~に備えて買い込む are natural but 場所(place)に買い込む is a bit unnatural. – Yuuichi Tam Jun 9 '17 at 6:18
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買っておく could also be used. The pattern Vbて-form+おく means "do something in advance, so as to be ready", "do something in preparation", "do something in readiness". E.g. この本を読んでおいてください "Please read this book in readiness[for next week's class]". I think ビールを買っておく would do for "I'm going to get the beer in".

Question for native speakers: my impression is that 買い込む and 買いだめする suggest some foresight and a certain amount of planning, where 買っておく is a bit more spur-of-the-moment. Am I right?

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    As for the nuance of degree of planning, your presumption is correct. There is another difference between them. As for the amount of things you buy, 買い込む and 買い込む is far many than 買っておく. – mackygoo Jun 8 '17 at 13:44
  • @mackygoo, thanks for that. I learn at least one new thing a day from this site. Regards. – Graham Healey Jun 8 '17 at 16:04

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