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I saw this answer to a recent question which contained the sentence:

私は猫二匹がいます

Is it okay to put the particle が after the counter. It seems strange to me. I would have expected:

私(に)は猫が二匹います

The answer to this question tells me that number+counter can be treated as a noun, so putting が at the end should be fine. But somehow I feel that the two situations are different.

In summary, is 私は猫二匹がいます correct and why/when would I choose it instead of 私は猫が二匹います?

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    「私は猫二匹がいます。」 is a very unnatural sentence and is something practically no native speakers would ever say (even though that answer got multiple upvotes). Your own sentence is far better. – l'électeur Jun 1 '17 at 16:02
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The form of a noun compound with a counter itself is grammatically correct, as you already read it.

As for when to use, I imagine situations where you treat several units each of which is comprised of single or multiple things as in military operation or something.

For example, if you ask for taking any two plates, you would say 皿を二枚取ってくれ, and refer to them as 皿二枚は when you tell how to arrange them.

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