What makes 飲んだ、and 飲んである different?

Don't they both describe the concept of drinking in the past?

More generally, what are the differences between the past tense of a verb, and the auxiliary verb ある?

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    I'll just put this in the comment. But if you want in the answer, that's ok with me. 飲んだ means drunk. I drank the milk, for instance. ~てある describes a resulting state with the agent who causes the change being de-emphasised (perhaps they are/it is unimportant). 窓(まど)が開(あ)けてある The window is open (has been left open). 窓 takes が, which makes it the subject. The agent is left out. If I was the one who left the window open, this fact is completely ignored. The statement is just matter-of-fact and my involvement is completely de-emphasised. – Robert May 14 '17 at 2:08
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    Related (or duplicate?) japanese.stackexchange.com/a/26132/9831 – Chocolate May 14 '17 at 2:51

Where does 飲んである come from? I can't think of any legitimate construction off the top of my head. 飲んでいた?

飲んだ is the simple past of 飲む. 飲んでいた is the past progressive or past perfect.

[Later edit] The context for 飲んである is like 冷蔵庫に入ってる牛乳が飲んであった?

Then this 飲んで is a 連用形 word modifying ある and the subject is 牛乳 (and naturally, the subject of 飲む is someone who drank it)

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