I'm not sure how I should translate this sentence. The text where I found it describes the life of a japanese guy who graduated from a japanese university and then was hired by a japanese firm.
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The key is 2年目 に "in the second year". The sentence means "In the second year after entering the bank, [he] studied at an American university". I'd go for something like "In his second year with the bank he went [presumably was sent] to study at an American university". Possibly even "He spent his second year with the bank studying at a university in America".