I just noticed this line in the System Preferences app on OS X:

enter image description here

It says


Click the lock to make changes

Here, に is put after a verb's plain form. I have never seen this kind of usage before. As far as I know, に is a 格助詞. And 格助詞 don't connect to verbs. They only connect to 体言, which I think does not include verbs.

So i searched online to see if this is a usage that I am not aware of. And I found this. But that does not show any examples of this "verb plain form + に" usage.

It also says that


格助詞 is mainly put after a noun and shows the relationship between that noun and another noun, a verb used as a predicate or an adjective.

How can に be put after a verb's plain form? What is this usage?

2 Answers 2


The article you linked say a 格助詞 mainly attaches to a noun. And according to デジタル大辞泉, に is a 格助詞 which can safely follow a verb:


5 動作・作用の目的を表す。「見舞い―行く」「迎え―行く」

I think you are already familiar with expressions like 食べに ("in order to eat") or 見に ("in order to see"), and these are the masu-stems of verbs followed by the 格助詞-に.

See also:

By the way, this verb before に is actually in the 連体形 (attributive form), not in the 終止形 (dictionary form). 終止形 is, as the name suggests, for ending a clause/sentence as a predicate. On the other hand, 連体形 (despite its name) worked as a nominalized noun in archaic Japanese. We can still see the 連体形 of a verb used as a noun in proverbs. For example, 逃げるが勝ち = "Running is winning", 聞くは一時の恥 = "Asking is a one-time shame".

  • "連体形 (despite its name) worked as a nominalized noun in archaic Japanese." So does that mean it does not work as a noun in modern Japanese?
    – Sweeper
    Commented Apr 29, 2017 at 12:03
  • 1
    Yes you usually have to use の/こと to nominalize a verb in modern Japanese. But verbs before に are still called 連体形.
    – naruto
    Commented Apr 29, 2017 at 12:06
  • 1
    @naruto これは「には」独特の用法だと思うんですが、驚くことに大辞泉には載ってないんですね…大辞林にはありました(には④) kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%AB%E3%81%AF-592565 Commented Apr 30, 2017 at 0:56


Simply, the given sentence (1) is made of sentence (2) by omitting "ため". This kind of abbreviation is very common.

"ためには" means "in order to."


You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .