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げたの音と子供のはしゃいでいる声が一面に響いていた。
The sound of clogs and the voices of high spirited children ??? resounded.

What does 一面に mean here? I'm quite sure it doesn't mean "on one surface" or "on one side" (since the story doesn't mention the sounds from the other side).

Goo tells me that it can mean 'all over'. This makes sense in the context. But that translation is almost opposite to its literal meaning. Is there an explanation for how it comes to have this meaning?

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I think that 「一面」 originally only meant "one broad/flat object" like all number + counter constructions. It has then been used to mean other things that are somehow related to one flat object.

一面{いちめん} definition 1:

物体の一つの面。One side of an object.

and definition 3:

辺り一帯。ある場所全体。All around. The entirety of a certain place.

If you think about definition 3, there is only one surface we all stand on. It is also flat if you don't look too deep into it, and it definitely is broad.

に after 一面 marks the place where 響いていた.

げたの音と子供のはしゃいでいる声が一面に響いていた。

The sound of clogs and the voices of high-spirited children resounded all around.

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