In the following sentence, why is すること needed?


Can it simply be:


  • As you might already know, システムメンテナンスにより休止することがあります and システムメンテナンスによる休止があります (≂システムメンテナンスにより休止します) have different meanings. The former means that the service might be (and might not be) unavailable due to system maintenance, whereas the latter is saying the service will certainly be unavailable due to system maintenance.
    – chocolate
    Apr 17, 2017 at 12:29
  • @Chocolate 休止がある still has a room to interpret that it might not happen. Such ambiguity itself is a difference, though.
    – user4092
    Apr 17, 2017 at 13:39

2 Answers 2



It couldn't be, instead you should say;


Question】 In the following sentence, why is すること needed?


At first, the given sentence could be broken down like this:

★日本語{にほんご}の文法{ぶんぽう}ルール1(Japanese Grammatical Rule 1)
(a) In the phrase 「**があります」 meaning "there is/are **," the part 「**」 must be 「名詞{めいし}(noun)or 名詞{めいし}句{く}(noun phrase)」.

★日本語{にほんご}の文法{ぶんぽう}ルール2(Japanese Grammatical Rule 2):
(b) 「****」+「に」+「よる」+「休止{きゅうし}」=名詞{めいし}句{く}(noun phrase)
(c) 「****」+「に」+「より」+「休止{きゅうし}する」=動詞{どうし}句{く}(verb phrase)

where ****=システムメンテナンス

These equations could be written grammatically more precisely:
(b)' 「****(=名詞{めいし})」+「に」+「よる(=因{よ}る(meaning 原因{げんいん}・理由{りゆう})=ラ行{ぎょう}四段{よんだん}活用{かつよう}連体形{れんたいけい})」+「休止{きゅうし}(=名詞{めいし})」=名詞{めいし}句{く}
(c)' 「****(=名詞{めいし})」+「に」+「より(=因{よ}り(meaning 原因{げんいん}・理由{りゆう})=ラ行{ぎょう}四段{よんだん}活用{かつよう}連用形{れんようけい})」+「休止{きゅうし}する(=動詞{どうし})」=動詞{どうし}句{く}

By the Rule 2, the following two phrases are allowed:
(d) システムメンテナンスによる休止{きゅうし}
(e) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅうし}する

but the phrase written below is not allowed.
(f) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅうし}

If you want to use the phrase (d) and (e) in the Rule 1, (d) has no problem but (e) must be changed into noun phrase by adding 「こと」 before applying the Rule.

Now you get (g) newly:
(g) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅうし}すること

I'd like to mention this in passing. 「場合{ばあい}」 could be also used instead of 「こと」 to change the verb phrase (e) into noun phrase (h) with the same meaning as (g).
(h) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅうし}する場合{ばあい}

Then you will get (g) and (h) along with (d), which are applicable three phrases to Rule 1 successfully.

At last you'll get three beautiful Japanese;
(i) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅし}することがあります。
(j) システムメンテナンスによる休止{きゅうし}があります。
(k) システムメンテナンスにより休止{きゅうし}する場合{ばあい}があります。

I think the last sentence is used most in business world.

  • Thank you, could you explain the grammar please?
    – Nutkin
    Apr 15, 2017 at 5:51
  • @Nutkin I'm a well educated and native Japanese. But, I'm sorry to say, to tell your the truth, I couldn't explain the correctness/incorrectness of those sentences grammatically.
    – user20624
    Apr 15, 2017 at 6:14
  • 3
    This is a very helpful response, but it focuses on the problem with ~により versus ~による, while the OP's specific question was about 休止することがあります versus 休止があります. Could you address that part of the question as well?
    – user1478
    Apr 15, 2017 at 6:44
  • @snailplane Now I understand what you tell me, and it is true that I didn't answer it to the questioner. Give me a little time to consider, because it is a difficult answer to make the questioner understand completely with my poor grammatical knowledge.
    – user20624
    Apr 15, 2017 at 14:18
  • Thank you, this is very helpful. Is (i) more formal than (j) ?
    – Nutkin
    Apr 16, 2017 at 22:52

In システムメンテナンスにより休止することがある, the システムメンテナンスにより part modifies the verb 休止する.

Whereas in システムメンテナンスにより休止がある, the システムメンテナンスにより modifies the verb ある this time.

It's not a major difference but when you want to express that システムメンテナンス is the cause of 休止, it's slightly more natural to choose the form in which システムメンテナンスにより modifies 休止. (システムメンテナンスによる休止 is this case.)

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