I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning.
All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. 日本国語大辞典's oldest attestation is from 其角十七回 (1723), and is inside a poem, as follows:
There are other websites that attribute the poem, or a very similar one, to Sen no Rikyū (1522-1591), which would obviously predate Kikaku, but I haven't been able to find a reliable source for this. Here's an example of a slightly different version attributed to SR:
器用さと 稽古と好きの そのうちで 好きこそものの 上手なりけれ
In both of these you can see that 好き first appears in the same "slot" as 器用さ (skill) and 稽古 (practice), which are definitely abstract nouns. I guess the second appearance of 好き might be intended to mean "a person who has 好き", but interpreting the なりけれ part more flexibly (or adopting dainichi's "liking = excelling" suggestion) seems like a more natural strategy to me than forcing 好き to behave that way.