What's the difference between the particles に、and まで? And what does it mean when combined to make までに?
I've been quite confused as to what these two mean. And I was hoping someone could compare the two to help me understand.
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First I guess it would be good to plainly lay out what the two mean.
に can be used to mean "to (a destination)", the precise time of an even (３時に at 3 o'clock) attached to a verb in stem form to mean "to do that thing (見に行った went (there) to watch (it)) as well as some other cases.
So, it's something like "to" or "at" or "in" etc.
まで is a little simpler. It basically means "until". Whether it's talking about until a certain time, or until a certain state.
When they are combined I believe in most situations it is just that they are being attached to the same word at the same time.
その日までに提出してください。 Please submit it by that day.
It's like saying "up to and on that day", or maybe "up to and including".
In this case, it just so happens we can translate it as one word, "by".
This can be done with other particles too. では には にも かも までも etc.
These can also often be translated as a single word.
In some cases, the second particle makes the first unnecessary so it gets deleted essentially. You wouldn't say 私がも just 私も for example.