When is the use of correct particle (を or が) on the direct object of a transitive verb, for example:
- shigoto o owarimasu
- shigoto ga owarimasu
What is the exact meaning in each other, please.
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Many Japanese verbs have transitive and intransitive versions. Basically, 終わる (owaru) is an intransitive verb. 終える (oeru) is the transitive equivalent. So here are the most basic usages:
- 仕事が終わります。 Shigoto ga owarimasu. (intransitive)
The task finishes.
- 仕事を終えます。 Shigoto o oemasu. (transitive)
I finish the task.
In plain and active sentences like your example, the direct object of a transitive verb is always marked with を. In potential and passive sentences there are a lot more to know.
So, these are the generic rules.
But in case you have seen ～を終わる before, please read on.
That's all for today's class.
Exceptional transitive usages are seen in limited contexts in some intransitive verbs. I think this transitive usage of 終わる is limited to "That's it/all (for today)" as a closing word of a lesson/meeting/etc. In such contexts 今日の授業が終わります sounds highly unnatural (it sounds the class closes on its own). For other meanings, you have to use ～が終わる or ～を終える following the general rule above. For example, you cannot say 食事を終わる nor 宿題を終わる. If you want to say "Let's have a party when you have finished with the novel":
- その小説が終わったら、パーティーを開きましょう。: OK
- その小説を終えたら、パーティーを開きましょう。: OK
- [×] その小説を終わったら、パーティーを開きましょう。: ungrammatical
There is another exception regarding 終わる; when this is used as an auxiliary verb (i.e., when it follows a stem of another verb and forms a compound verb that means "finish ～ing"),
verb + 終わる works as a both transitive-and-intransitive verb. In this case, を and が are interchangeable.
- その小説を書き終わったら、パーティーを開きましょう。: OK
- その小説が書き終わったら、パーティーを開きましょう。: OK
- その小説を書き終えたら、パーティーを開きましょう。: OK