Today I was reading the story of David & Goliath and saw this strange pattern:

ゴリアトは四十日の間、朝やって来て、同じ所に立った。ー サムエル記上 17:16
Goliath challenged the Israelites every morning and evening for forty days. - 1 Samuel 17:16 ; (Yes, "stood in the same place Took up his same position" implies his challenges from an early part of the story)

Is this basically just a 〜も〜も pattern or does it have other uses too? What is its origin? Is it formal and/or archaic? Is it a typo in my Bible?

I've never seen this pattern before and cannot find anything on it. Any information would be great.


They are used with time nouns, in parallel. I know of only these usage patterns:

  • [朝]{あさ}な[朝]{あさ}な (also read as あさなさな) - every morning
  • [朝]{あさ}な[夕]{ゆう}な - every morning and evening
  • [夜]{よ}な[夜]{よ}な - every night

According to Kadokawa Shōjiten "Nihongo no Gogen", it's shortened from 「の間」 (source), but I can't confirm the veracity.

  • Would you mind showing us how to read your example phrases?
    – user1016
    Feb 1 '12 at 5:12
  • - [朝]{あさ}な[朝]{あさ}な - every morning - [朝]{あさ}な[夕]{ゆう}な - every morning and evening - [夜]{よ}な[夜]{よ}な - every night
    – oldergod
    Feb 1 '12 at 5:31
  • 4
    For the record, the のま etymology seems pretty far-fetched, and isn't supported by any serious modern research. Personally I suspect a much simpler link putting it in the same family tree as に and なり(にあり) (and arguably の, but without 間)... but this, too, isn't supported by any serious research, it's just a hunch.
    – Matt
    Feb 1 '12 at 6:08

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