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During reading a book in Japanese I stumbled upon a sentence impossible for me to translate

そこでは、すべての条件を彼の御都合的な権力目的の方向へ手段づけて行く極端な目的合理主義が貫徹された結果、一定の究極価値から行為規範を演繹してくる価値合理性は、種類の如何を問わず蹂躙され尽して、遂にニヒリズムが生み出されたのであった。

I fully understand the second part, but I just don't get the grammatical connection between 「結果」 and the second part of the sentence. I also don't understand the phrase 「手段づけて行く」 at all.

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Take a look at how 「結果」 is used here:

連邦議会がその法案を可決した結果、それまで以上に多くの国旗が焼き捨てられたに違いありません。

I am sure that more flags were burned as a result of Congress passing that law than had ever been burned before.

Although the English translation of that example sentence has an awkward word order, your sentence would basically mean "as a result of A, B" where B is the part that you understood.

「目的の方向へ手段づけて行く」 means "to work towards a goal by means of something". In that part the 「づけて」 comes from 「付ける」 so 「手段づける」 would be literally "to attach means".

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In this paragraph 結果 is placed in the middle, in English it's the first word of the sentence "As a result of ....."

手段づける = to make it available by each steps in real/ity (i.e. develop things)

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