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Can もうbe used in instances where a person may be frustrated? I heard the term uttered by itself only, but it seemed like the person may have been a little upset. I'm not sure of a specific meaning. Thank you.

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Yes, it can. It is in fact a fairly common way of expressing anger, frustration, disappointment, etc. Female speakers would probably use it slightly more often than male speakers.

You will hear just 「もう!」、「もお!」、「もーお!」, etc. all by themselves, or a word or phrase attached to one of those as in 「もういや!」、「もういい!」、「もー知{し}らない!」, etc.

Note: For those who thought 「もういい!」 might have a positive meaning because of the word 「いい」, it does not. It means "Enough is enough."

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