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I only know aida means a between a space or time and that uchi can only be used with a particle, but other than that, what do these words literally mean , how do you use them and what are the ways they differ?

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As for the difference between 間 and うち, see: When describing time span, are 間 {あいだ} and 内 {うち} interchangeable?

ながら is used in the following two situations:

  1. To emphasize one is making two different actions simultaneously.

    • 食べながらテレビを見るな。 Don't watch TV while eating.
    • 走りながらラジオを聞いていました。 I was listening to the radio while running.
  2. To mean "despite".

    • 彼はプロの野球選手でありながら、ピアノも上手だ。
      He is good at playing the piano despite being a professional baseball player.
    • 貧乏ながら幸せに暮らしています。
      While I'm in poverty, I'm leading a happy life.
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  • I believe I learned at some point that ながら constructions require that the subject of both clauses is the same and 内/間 constructions require that the subjects are different. Is that correct? Thanks
    – G-Cam
    Mar 23, 2017 at 20:13
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    @G-Cam I think 間/うち constructions can have a shared subject: 「若い間にいろいろ経験しよう。」「忘れないうちにメモした。」
    – naruto
    Mar 23, 2017 at 20:37

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