Just for context I'll attach the preceding sentence as well:

  1. Does この世界に modify あとから入ったもの or is この世界に a local adverb, saying: "In this world,...

  2. I'm having problems with あとから. So far, my textbook only taught me about あと as a suffix, basically meaning "after". However, I've never seen あと attached to to a particle, so I'd rather see it connected to から as a prefix, making "あとから", which would somehow indicate a timespan starting after a certain point in time.

  3. 先輩の世話をさせられる. I guess the subject of this causative passive are the 者 who are coerced to help their sempais?^^


あとから = "from afterwards", i.e. "at a later date", "later than", "subsequently" or simply "after" So この世界にあとから入った者 = "Those who have entered this world later" This is the topic of the sentence, marked as usual with は. 先輩の世話をさせられる = "are made to perform services for their seniors" (i.e those who entered the this world before them) So a literalish version would be "Those who enter this world later are made to perform services for their seniors" I'd go for something like "Those who join the sumo world later find themselves at the beck and call of those who preceded them - their senpai"

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