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Japanese restaurants serve time limited meals when they are busy with lunch and dinner customers.

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There are mainly two phrases: 時間{じかん}限定{げんてい} and 期間{きかん}限定{げんてい}.

How different

At restaurants and hotels, time limited meal usually offered within several hours per day. This is when the first phrase 時間限定 is used.

From Hotel Monterey Kyoto time limited plan at its cafe and bar, the phrase is used likewise (see text in bold):

【バータイム限定】ハッピーアワー/17時~19時までの時間限定プラン

At fast food restaurants and food products stores, time limited meal or product may be offered for weeks, months or unspecified period. This is when the second phrase 期間限定 is used.

From McDonald's Japan news on 2 March 2017, the phrase is used likewise (see text in bold):

2017.03.02

春の「てりたま」に“史上最長”と“史上初”で元気いっぱいになる商品勢揃い! マック史上最長の「ギガベーコンてりたま」 てりたま史上初朝マックに「てりたまマフィン」 3月8日(水)から期間限定販売

Phrase variations

In Japan, "time limited meal" sometimes seems to be offerred by amount of quantity or location of store at the time. For such offers, 数量{すうりょう}限定{げんてい} and 店舗{てんぽ}限定{げんてい} are used respectively.

From McDonald's Japan news on 17 October 2016 and 8 August 2016, these phrases are used likewise (see text in bold):

2016.10.17

45周年記念復活メニュー第二弾「ベーコンポテトパイ」 予想を上回る販売数による、数量限定販売のお知らせ ~数量限定販売は、10月18日(火)より~

2016.08.08

マクドナルド89店舗限定の“McCafé by Barista”で、丸ごと食べられる 葡萄(ぶどう)をトッピングした秋先取りのリッチなスムージーが初登場! 「葡萄(ぶどう)のスムージー」 8月10日(水)から期間限定販売

Notice that the word 限定{げんてい}, which means "limited", is used in any of the phrases mentioned in this answer. There may be other phrases that make use of this word.

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I believe it is 時間制限{じかんせいげん}, which is usually used with regards to all-you-can-eat meals but can be used for other types of restaurants.

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