1

に気をつける is a much more popular expression, from what I see, compared to を気をつける. But the latter is still not that rare.

Is there any significant difference between these two and something to be wary of upon choosing to use either?

1

を気をつける is much rarer. The BCCWJ gives the following numbers:

 に気を(つ・付) 1363 results
には気を(つ・付)  181 results 
 は気を(つ・付)  155 results
 を気を(つ・付)   26 results

giving

に(は) 89.5%
は     9.0%
を     1.5%

First of all, I think that this shows that に or は are much more common. Moreover, I think that in most of the cases, you can replace を by に without much trouble.

However, in examples such as

その辺を気をつける

ここのところを気をつける

に may be misinterpreted as a location marker, because the preceding word can also describe a location, even if it used differently in these sentences. (The に in ~に気をつける is rather the "direction" marker (used in a figurative sense).)

Also, を can be used as a last resort, because に(は) has been used already, as in

コバエ防止には、エサを気をつけています。

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