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I'm reading a story someone has written in Japanese and I came upon this sentence:

体こそ違えど記憶と精神は彼女のものを引き継いでいる。

I think it means something like:

The body is different, the memory and spirit are taking over things from her.

But what is the purpose of ど before the word for 'memory' in this sentence? From jisho it tells me ど is a prefix meaning "precisely/exactly/totally/very much", but I'm not sure how that changes the translation I did above (if that is an accurate translation)

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You looked up the wrong 「ど」, the prefix 「ど」.

This 「ど」 is a conjunctive particle meaning "although". These two are completely different words even though they look the exact same.

「が」 and 「けれども」 would be the synonyms of this 「ど」. 「ど」 sounds more literary and dramatic than those two.

"Although my body is different (from hers), I do take over her memory and spirit."

You mistranslated the 「彼女のもの」 part. It just means "hers". It refers to her memory and spirit. 「もの」 does not mean "things" here.

"as for memory and spirit, I take over hers" is the literal translation.

One example of the other 「ど」 -- the prefix 「ど」:

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