I'm confused with unknown for me verb form, which I faced on two sentences in a row. It looks like Verb (nai form) + れ or passive voice without ます/る.
The examples with the full context:

雲は流され 慌てふためき
風が招かれ 吹き荒れる

Can someone explain me what form is this, when does it used and what is the meaning of it? I tried to google this, but found nothing Т_т
Moreover, why there are different particles (は/が) on those two cases?

2 Answers 2


The verb is 流す(ながす)and there are two forms of the verb happening here.

  1. It's using a passive form: 流される。
  2. Often times in written language, it's using stem form: 流され in place of the spoken form, would be the same as 流されて、

The second verb is 招く(まねく)and if you've learned the other forms described above, you can figure out the rest.

As for は/が, those can be quite difficult and I would suggest reading more of the explanation of those differences online. (TLDR: my explanation would be long and probably not that great)

  • I might be wrong about the written vs. spoken part but that's sort of just how I see it from experience. Not sure why this was downvoted without comments... welcome to the strange world of non-native stackexchange speakers I guess.
    – david
    Feb 6, 2020 at 19:10

As for は/が, it's similar to difference of nuance between that/this.

If there's not particular requirement, the sentence would be enough with "(If something happens, then) 雲流され慌てふためき 風招かれ吹き荒れる" because they are new information.

Now, using は for 雲 is like scooping it out from the rest of the sentence and it can give a rhetorical effect of conveying a sense of distance, which is kind of like use of "that" opposed to "this".

  • Thank you! I know common difference between は and が, but I thought, that it could be some specific usage with unknown for me verb form
    – Trace
    Feb 2, 2017 at 8:36

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