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「ねー、つれてってよ。七夕だよ」
Hey, take me along. It's Tanabata.
「七夕なんて行ってどうすんだよ。毎年同じような飾りばっかりじゃねェか。今年はいいにしろ」
Go to Tanabata and do what? It's just the same decorations every year. Even if they're good this year...

I'm struggling to understand the 行ってどうすんだ part. I assume it's a contraction of 行ってどうするのだ, but I don't know what the function of どうする is here. Why is it not marked as a question with ?/か

Does it mean "what will you do if you go?". I guess I would have said something like:

言ったらどうするの? 言ったらどうしよう? or something like that

Would this be correct? Does it have the same nuance?

I can't understand how the て-form is being used in a place where I would have expected an 'if'.

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「行ってどうすんだ」=「行ってどうすんだ」,

just to confirm the dictionary form first.

「Verb in て-form + どうする + (の/んだ/んだよ, etc.)」

needs to be remembered as a set phrase because it is used heavily.

This expression actually means along the lines of:

"There is no use (verb + ing)." or

"What's the use of (verb + ing)?"

rather than the literal:

"You (verb) and then do what?"

Finally,

"I can't understand how the て-form is being used in a place where I would have expected an 'if'."

That usage of 「て」 is common even outside of the set phrase we are talking about. You can say:

「日本に行って、何をしたいの?」, which is basically the same thing as saying:

「日本に行ったら、何をしたいの?」

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