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How should I determine which place I need to locate 「数詞{すうし} + も」? From my text book example:

1: 毎年何百枚も年賀状を出します

数詞も is now located in front of the noun 年賀状.

2: 卵を六つも食べた

Now 数詞も is located in front of the verb 食べた. I'm getting quite confused with this.

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Both of your example sentences sound fine. You could place "numeral + counter + も" before or after "noun + を".

You'd usually place "numeral + counter" after "noun + を・が", as in:

卵を6個食べた。
年賀状を100枚出します。

And you can keep the same word order when you use も, as in:

卵を6個食べた。
年賀状を何百枚出します。

It's also grammatical to place "numeral + counter" before "noun + を・が", as in:

6個卵を食べた。
100枚年賀状を出します。

Here again you can keep the same word order with も:

6個卵を食べた。
何百枚年賀状を出します。


The same applies to だけ、くらい、は、しか~ない、何~か、 etc. eg:

卵を1個だけ食べた。
1個だけ卵を食べた。

卵が2個しかない
2個しか卵がない

卵が割れた。
卵が割れた。

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For example, in the case of 私は昨日、友達の家で三個も林檎を食べた。

私は昨日、友達の家で三個も林檎を食べた。

三個も私は昨日、友達の家で林檎を食べた。

私は三個も昨日、友達の家で林檎を食べた。

私は昨日、三個も友達の家で林檎を食べた。

私は昨日、友達の家で林檎を三個も食べた。

私は昨日、友達の家で林檎を食べた、三個も

These are almost same meaning and you can choose the one you like. That is to say, you can locate adverbs which indicates time and number everywhere but when they are located in the first and end of the sentence, I feel it is emphasized. By the by, I chose the first one.

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