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I wonder, how to say just "I took the exam"?

The thing is, that saying 試験【しけん】を受ける 【うける】 could have two meanings, right?
1) The fact, that you took the exam, and 2) success in passing actually.

Am I right? If yes, how should I say "I took an exam", not "I passed an exam" - as f.ex. I am still waiting for results.

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No, you are not right, but you came to the right place.

「試験{しけん} + + 受{う}る」

can only mean "to take the exam".

「試験 + + 受る」

can only mean "to pass the exam".

Those are two different verbs and two different particles. The past tense versions are:

「試験けた。」 (I/someone took the exam.)

「試験かった。」 (I/someone passed the exam.)

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  • More generally, 受ける means "to undergo", or "to receive", with a particular passive nuance, which is related to "to take (an exam)". It has several uses, like "罰を受ける", "to receive a punishment". – Right leg Dec 16 '16 at 17:10

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