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I know までに means "by" or "by the time..." And it's used with Time. But I can't help but wonder if I can use it with verbs for example...would this make sense...

行ったまでに...
By the time he came...

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までに can only be used with nouns or adverbs of time (1時、あした)or with verbs in non-past form. Even if the action takes place in the past, you must use non-past form before までに. This is common in japanese, because the final verb in the sentence is indicative of the overall temporal, formal qualities.

For example:

飛行機がパリに着くまでに本を三冊読んでしまいました
By the time the aeroplane landed in Paris, I had already finished reading three books.

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