2

彼の本は赤いです。

His book is red. What is the topic? Is it him or the color red, since 赤い is after the は?

8

In Japanese, particles come after the things they mark:

彼の本は赤いです。

The topic is the entire phrase 彼の本.

4

Topic is 彼の本 ("his book") and is clearly marked by the following topic particle は.

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