When this kind of nuance is used for the verb 知らない, why is the verb 知らない used even though it means "to know" and how do you translate it exactly...?
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You could think of it as "complicitly knowing".
So, in the context of your example「知らない」it expresses something like:
So it could be translated this way...
- "If anything happens to you, don't come crying to me about it."
- "I can't be held responsible if anything were to happen."
Weblio has an entry for 知らない that shows the two usages:
If anything happens, I don't know (about anything)
This 知らない can be translated as:
"There is nothing that I can do"
"I won't be able to help you"
"I don't know about any way to help you"
"I won't care about you"