I need help understanding the difference between の代わりに and に代わって.

This is how A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar explains the difference:

の代わりに cannot be used when "replacement" is expressed:

[1] 戦後ガラス{に代わって/*の代わりに}プラスチックが出てきた。 (*denotes incorrect)

に代わって cannot be used for on-the-spot substitution of objects:

[2] エコノミークラスではガラスの食器{の代わりに/*に代わって}プラスチックの食器が出る。 (*denotes incorrect)

(Question) What do they mean by "replacement" and on-the-spot substitution? I am still quite unable to understand the difference. Isn't on-the-spot substitution a form of "replacement"? If one is a subset of the other, then both の代わりに and に代わって should be able to be used for one type of sentence, while only either の代わりに or に代わって be used for the more specific case.

Being distinguished as per [1] and [2] seems to make them mutually exclusive.

Also as an aside: What sense of 出る is used in these sentences?

1 Answer 1

  • の代わりに 'temporarily substite, instead of' does not accompany temporal transition from one to another.

    × エコノミークラスではガラスの食器に代わってプラスチックの食器が出る。
     'On economy class seats, plastic utensils are served, taking over the role of glass ones.'
     'On economy class seats, plastic utensils are served instead of glass ones.'

  • に代わって 'replace, take over' entails temporal transition from one to another.

      'After WWII, plastics appeared, taking over the role of glasses.'
    × 戦後ガラスの代わりにプラスチックが出てきた。
      'After WWII, plastics appeared instead of glasses.'

出る here means 'appear' (< be exposed to the world) or 'be served' (< appear in front of the customer).

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