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もう1つの大{おお}きな政党{せいとう}の共和党{きょうわとう}からはドナルド・トランプさんが出{で}ました

This seems simple enough but I don't know how to properly translate. Literally:

About from the Republican party of the large political party of another one, Donald Trump (appeared?).

"The Republican party of the political party" is probably not what the の means here, but I'm not familiar with other meanings of の.

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The の is an appositive (同格) particle.

もう1つの大きな政党共和党からは...

You could rephrase it as もう1つの大きな政党である共和党からは...

"From the other major political party, (that is,) the Republican Party, ..."
"From the Republican Party, (which is) the other major political party, ..."

Examples:

  • 友達山田くん (my friend Yamada-kun)
  • のねずみぐりとぐら (field mice Guri and Gura)
  • 被害者男性 (a man who is a victim; a male victim)

ドナルド・トランプさんが出ました
Donald Trump (appeared?)

The 出る means [立候補]{りっこうほ}する or [出馬]{しゅつば}する, "to run (as a candidate / for president)".

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