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今日は何をしようか。So is it a set rule that volitional form in plain (not using -ましょう) can use the question marker か?

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    Question the initial assumption. Is it true that the question marker か can only be used in polite questions. – Flaw Oct 28 '16 at 13:04
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    Hint: the answer is no. か is universally used for questions, regardless of politeness or formality. – Kurausukun Oct 28 '16 at 15:07
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According to "A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar", page 166, か can also be used in plain form.
Examples:
これは本だ。This is a book.
これは本か。 Is this a book?
貴方は先生だ。You are a teacher.
貴方は先生か。 Are you a teacher?
In the examples above the だ drops and is replaced by か.

あの本は高い。That book is expensive.
あの本は高いか。 Is that book expensive?
私が話す。I speak.
私が話すか。 Do I speak?
In the examples above か is added at the end of the sentence.

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