1

ネビルはずっとメソメソしていた。罰っていったい何だろう、とハリーは思い巡らせた

Neville kept sniffing. Harry wondered what their punishment was going to be.

Please help me understand 思い巡らせた in the sentence above, especially its conjugation.

2

巡る kind of means to go around from place to place.

The 巡 kanji is used for 巡回 and 巡礼 where it means the same.

It is also possible to write 巡る as 回る, so you can see that it has the idea of going around and around from here to there.

The base is just a combination of 思い (meaning one's "mind") and 巡る.

らせる is a 使役-form of 巡る, so it means to make or cause something to go around from place to place.

So, 思い巡らせる or 思いを巡らせる means to make or cause your mind and thoughts to go around from place to place. Or as you can see in the definition in the link below 「あれこれと考える」

In the context of the quote in the OP, since Harry doesn't know what the punishment will be, it's natural to translate 思い巡らせた as "[he] wondered", which I think implies he was thinking about many different possible outcomes and trying to decide which one he felt it would be.

http://www.weblio.jp/content/%E6%80%9D%E3%81%84%E5%B7%A1%E3%82%89%E3%81%99

0

巡る means to "come back to" or "bring back to" so adding it to 思い could mean something like, "think again" or "rethink something".

思い巡る (dictionary form) ---> 思い巡らせる (causative) ---> 思い巡らせた (causative, past, casual)

So Neville's actions made Harry think again about what the punishment was going to be.

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