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For ~ている , it has a negative form which is ~ていない and is usually simplified as ~てない. Are 手を上げている and 手を上げてある implies the same thing? Which focuses on the fact that a subject is raising their hand? What if the sentence becomes 手を上げてない? Is it the negative ある or いる? ~ている indicates present progressive while ~てある indicates resultant state from an action done intentionally with a purpose.

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    Does the negative form of 〜てある exist? --> そうですよね・・ We don't say ~てあらない and use ~てない instead... so it must be pretty confusing (By the way, here in Kansai you can use ~てあらへん for the negative form of ~てある ^^ )
    – chocolate
    Oct 6, 2016 at 8:29
  • @chocolate, add that as an answer!
    – darkgaze
    Oct 6, 2016 at 9:06

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First, it's meaningless to compare 手を上げている and 手を上げてある because the latter is a strange expression and people don't say it.

As for which focuses on how things are happening in the moment, it's irrelevant to which is used between …ている and …てある.

…ている can mean either that something happened and the resultant state remains or that something is happening in the moment.

…てある focuses the thing while …ている does the action. For example, 字が書いてある focuses what is there on surface of something while 字を書いている does what someone has done.

Negative forms of …てある and …ている are …てない and …ていない respectively. So, if you reply to "何か書いてある?", you say "書いてない". However, the negative form of …てある is so rare that you won't really see it beside the usage above. In addition, …ていない could colloquially be contracted into …てない.

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