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According to my teacher, if you want to use 自動詞 to describe 名詞, you should transform 自動詞 to た形, for example

彼は優れた人。

But if I want to use the 辞書形 — e.g. 彼は優れる人です — is it meaningful? And can I do like that?

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Essentially, by changing a verb to describe a noun, (or verb to adjective) it would make more sense to use た形 to describe past tense. Since you are making a statement to describe something, it would make more sense to use past tense since the description is 'decided' or in the past? If you follow what I mean.. e.g. 彼は優れた人 means he is excellent, but taken literally you can say it means he has excelled.(since he has excelled in the past, hence he is excellent).

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