# How do verbs interact with particles like は, が, も, を, etc [closed]

みなさんこんにちは! :D

Currently, i'm reading Tae-Kim's big 'learn japanese' guide-thingy, and am still vary much at the stage where im still learning to grasp the basic sentence structure/grammar.

To this end, while i still struggle alot, im good enough with the basics of nouns and adjectives to say/read vary simple things and be able to work out the grammar.

The thing right now is that while its still confusing, i can at least grasp how particles like は、が、も interact with nouns and adjectives, i can slowly work my way through a sentence and come to understand its meaning.

However, the above does not apply to verbs, in that while i do get what verbs are for, and kinda get the を particle. The exact nature of it, as well as verbs interactions with other particles/nouns, is something i still reach a consistent loss at, having no clue as to what is being described.

So ya, basicly, given the following uses of (noun) and (verb), could someone explain what exactly is being described in each case, what idea is being expressed, in a vary general sense?

(noun)(verb)

(verb)(noun)

(noun)を(verb)

(noun)は(verb)

(noun)が(verb)

So ya, hopefully ive managed to explain my current plight. I look forward to hopefully finding a answer to it.

Thankz! :D

edit: Just to clarify. I dont care what exactly strings like 雨を来る literally mean, or if they make sense. Im asking what exactly the grammar itself is describing, regardless of the particular noun/verb used. The use of 雨 and 来る is arbitrary.

edit: 雨 and 来る seem to be confusing people, so allow me to be a bit more direct with (noun) and (verb) instead.

## closed as too broad by macraf, virmaior, user3856370, broccoli forest, snailcar♦Oct 5 '16 at 4:54

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

• 雨を来る is the only one that's bad. ( but it may/might be used in a poem or clever prose. ) Good luck with your studies. – HizHa Sep 21 '16 at 0:36
• Thx, but the question i asked relates to what exactly the 5 strings mean, what they describe regardless of the noun/verb used, as thats the part i aīnt got a clue about at this point. – Tirous Sep 21 '16 at 0:42
• You could feed them all to Translate.Google, etc. and comment on the results. --- ( seems like a reasonable thing to do for someone in your situation. ) -- and it's likely to evoke / elicit responses. – HizHa Sep 21 '16 at 0:54
• The problem is that things like google translate try to truncated the result, ending in things like 'Come rain' for both は and が, which doesnt help explain what the adjective means in that context. – Tirous Sep 21 '16 at 1:03
• Entire dissertations have been written on how the particles in Japanese work and I think the approach you're taking above is slightly confused. Particles are one of the main things that glue parts of sentences together to have meaning in Japanese... – virmaior Sep 21 '16 at 1:20

A Japanese verb (base form) is both present and future.

• 雨来る ----- N does V. -- The rain comes.

• 来る雨 ----- V-ing N. -- The coming rain.

• 雨を来る ----- 雪を食べる is [Eat the snow.] (食べる vt. vs. vi. 来る)

• 雨は来る ----- (The rain is coming.)

• 雨が来る ----- (The rain is coming.)

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/blog/2005/02/05/the-difference-between-and/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_grammar#Topic.2C_theme.2C_and_subject:_.E3.81.AF_wa_and_.E3.81.8C_ga

Topic, theme, and subject: は wa and が ga

The complex distinction between the so-called topic (は wa) and subject (が ga) particles has been the theme of many doctoral dissertations and scholarly disputes. The clause 象は鼻が長い zō-wa hana-ga nagai is well known for appearing to contain two subjects. It does not simply mean "the elephant's nose is long", as that can be translated as 象の鼻は長い zō-no hana-wa nagai. Rather, a more literal translation would be

  "(speaking of) the elephant, its nose is long".


Two major scholarly surveys of Japanese linguistics in English, (Shibatani 1990) and (Kuno 1973), clarify the distinction. To simplify matters, the referents of wa and ga in this section are called the topic and subject respectively, with the understanding that if either is absent, the grammatical topic and subject may coincide.

As an abstract and rough approximation, the difference between wa and ga is a matter of focus: wa gives focus to the action of the sentence, i.e., to the verb or adjective, whereas ga gives focus to the subject of the action. However, a more useful description must proceed by enumerating uses of these particles.

However, when first being introduced to the subject and topic markers wa and ga most are told that the difference between the two is simpler. The topic marker, wa, is used to declare or to make a statement. The subject marker, ga, is used for new information, or asking for new information.

(Bad, wordy English. Typical Wikipedia style.)

(For example, note the two 'However's in succession.)

• Thx lad, i think this will do for now. sry for dragging wa and ga into this btw. – Tirous Sep 21 '16 at 1:46
• My question basically boils down to this tho, which of the 5 strings describes the verb as something that is being done(the needle is/will shine), and which treat it like a quality, akin to a adjective(the shining needle <- title). – Tirous Sep 21 '16 at 1:52
• if you post that as a question, i'll prob. answer it. – HizHa Sep 22 '16 at 0:44
• Cool, but i think ive more or less got it now, but thx no less! :D – Tirous Sep 22 '16 at 0:50