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I understand that they both mean to transmit or communicate, but I am having a hard time understanding how they are used. I have seen them both used, for example, on cellphones.

メッセージを送信【そうしん】 in one messaging app

メッセージを通信【つうしん】 in another messaging app

Is there a difference in the feeling, or is one more "correct"? Can they be used in different contexts, instead of only being used in the same way?

7

送信 means outbound communication, 受信 means inbound communication, and 通信 means communication in general. We also have a word 送受信, which explicitly refers to communication in both directions.

So メッセージを送信 only means sending a message. メッセージを通信 means both sending and receiving messages.

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