I've come across a few examples before, but never quite known what te-form used on its own means. I know that te-form used on its own can be an indication of omitted ~ください, but these examples do not seem to be that. For example:


Does this mean 思っている with いる omitted? Or perhaps another subsidiary verb omitted?

Also another example is:


Where I'd assume 込んでて is a contraction of 込んでいて, but what is then assumed to be omitted after the final て?

  • It gives the sense that there's more to be said, but it's been omitted. "I was thinking of studying abroad in America, etc" Or, "I went to Disney Land, and wow, it was crowded,...." and expensive and had long lines etc.
    – A.Ellett
    Commented Sep 7, 2016 at 3:27

1 Answer 1


These are examples of the te-form to denote a reason/cause.

The first example sentence probably refers to something previously mentioned in the conversation, and explains the reason for that. For example:

"You started learning English?" "Yeah, coz I'm thinking of studying in the USA."

In this example, 英語の勉強を始めた is the "consequence" part which could have followed 思って. It's omitted because you don't have to say the same thing twice.

The second example sentence is simply incomplete ("It was very crowded, so..."). Maybe the conversation was interrupted for some reason. Maybe you're just missing the following part on the next page. Maybe the speaker was lazy and wanted to you to guess the rest of the sentence. It depends on the context.

  • Maybe finishing the sentence would have been embarrassing for the speaker? Commented Feb 12 at 4:23
  • 1
    @KarlKnechtel Some people say Japanese is a language of subtlety and reservation, but I feel calling it "embarrassing" would be an exaggeration. It's simply that 言いさし expressions are normal in Japanese.
    – naruto
    Commented Feb 12 at 12:52

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