As for the given sentence (1), it is difficult to interpret it with letting it have the connotation of the questioner's intention like "He is the destination of my love. or I feel my love to him".
As for the sentence (2), we don't say it, which is commented by Chocolate.
If I interpret the sentence (1) as it is, the interpretation may become quite different from what is meant by the questioner. My interpretation becomes as follows:
(1)' I feel that he loves somebody or something.
Moreover, the sentence (1) is not a little natural as Japanese, so (1) is recommended to be written by changing the particle "が" to "は" like:
Putting aside the "が" problem, if you want to make the sentence (1) into natural ones having the intended connotation of that "I feel my love to him", I would rewrite it like:
(4) 僕は彼への愛を感じる / (4)' 彼への愛を僕は感じる
I feel my love to him.
(5) 僕は彼に対｛たい｝する愛を感じる / (5)' 彼に対｛たい｝する愛を僕は感じる
I feel my love for him.
(6) 僕は彼を愛していることを感じる / (6)' 彼を愛していることを僕は感じる
I feel that I love him.
(7) 僕は彼に私の愛が向｛む｝いているの（/こと）を感じる / (7)' 彼に私の愛が向いているの（/こと）を僕は感じる
I feel that my love aims at him.
(8) 僕は彼に私の愛が憑｛と｝りついているのを感じる / (8)' 彼に私の愛が憑｛と｝りついているのを私は感じる
I feel that my love sticks to/in him.
All of the sentences from (4) to (8) have a structure as follows:
(9) 僕は「A」を感じる / (9)' 「A」を僕は感じる
Apparently, the part "A" is a noun phrase or a noun clause.
On the other hand, the sentence (1) or (3) has a construction as:
(10) 僕が/は 「彼に愛を」 感じる
"彼に愛を" is neither a noun phrase nor a noun clause, then what?
Before that, the possessor of the "愛" is not clear in (1) and (3).
As for the possessor of the "愛", there are two choices: my 愛 and his 愛.
In the context, you have no choice but the "愛" is "my 愛".
Then you have to make the possession of 愛 clear in the sentence as:
(11) 僕が/は 「彼に」「僕の愛を」 感じる
(11)' I feel my love 「彼に」.
There may be several interpretation for (11) or (11)'.
(12) I feel my love at him.
(13) I feel my love in him.
(14) I feel my love for him.
What is the acceptable interpretation for the questioner?
Alas, the most possible interpretation of (11) or (11)' is that:
(15) I feel that he has my love.
I know this is not the acceptable interpretation of the sentence (1) having the meaning of "He is the destination of my love" or "I feel my love to him".
As the whole, it is difficult to let the sentence (1) have one of the meaning from (4) to (8).
Last but not least.
Let's think about the difference between the three sentences depending on three different particles "に", "まで" and "へ" based on the sentence 「京都に行く」(I go to Kyoto） which is given in the Chocolate's comment.
Each of them has the same meaning as "I go to Kyoto".
More precisely, they have the meaning respectively as:
(16)' に - I go to the place where Kyoto is.
(17)' まで - I go as far as to Kyoto
(18)' へ - I go to/towards Kyoto
Though they have the same meaning, the viewpoint or the subject of concern are different from each other as follows:
(16) に – the arrival point Kyoto
(17) まで – the route to Kyoto or the middle way of passing to Kyoto
(18) へ – the starting point to Kyoto