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学校に行く人は学生だ is the plain. So can I use the polite form such as 学校に行きます人は学生です。

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    Can you modify nouns with polite verbs in the relative clause? -> Technically, yes, but only in formal/limited contexts. Eg: 「本日ご紹介いたします商品はこちらでございます。」(TV shopping channel)「まもなく2番線に参ります / 入ります電車は、各駅停車京都行きです。」(train station announcement) 「只今ご紹介にあずかりました山田太郎でございます」(formal speech) – Chocolate Sep 5 '16 at 6:36
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For your specific example, to make the sentence into polite form you would not change the ending of 行く; e.g. 学校に行く人は学生です。 That rule applies to modified nouns. Here are a few more examples.

あの眼鏡【めがね】を掛けている人は誰ですか。 (polite)

あの眼鏡【めがね】を掛けている人は誰? (informal)

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