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This is a hard to explain question, but if someone found this board through stackoverflow (I guess that happened to many of us) he/she will understand better what I'm asking (moreover if once you had to make a compiler). Is there a list with all the valid Japanese syntactic structures? (well, I guess translators have to work with that, so it has to exist?)

For example, one structure ("rule") would be subject-wa-object-verb . And this would be useful to check if you are writting or saying rightly any sentence when you have doubts.

For example, a common question is, where can I add a word that refers to time? is there only one place? (today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc.). What are the rules that prevent me from doing so? I.e. What is the set of syntax rules that inform me if a particular modification to the sentence is valid?

I know real languages are more complex than programming languages but yet maybe all these set of rules can be written and someone did.

closed as too broad by Blavius, virmaior, macraf, Dono, snailcar Aug 25 '16 at 0:32

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    Are you looking for a Japanese equivalent of the seven (or five) basic sentence patterns in English? Or do you mean the list of all the grammatical rules of Japanese? – naruto Aug 24 '16 at 13:55
  • The last, but both sounds good – Pablo Aug 24 '16 at 13:56
  • I mean, if there is a shortlist with the most used sentence patterns is cool, though only 7 sounds like pretty basic – Pablo Aug 24 '16 at 13:57
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    Maybe if the focus of the question shifted away from an existence check which has these as answers: 'yes/no there is/isn't a list' to a question that asks for the syntax rules which has these as answers: 'the rules are such and such and incidentally a list exists at...'. I feel that the question now feels borderline off-topic as either a resource request or as a rather broad question. – Flaw Aug 24 '16 at 14:23
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    I modified your question a little to try to shift the focus. Let's see if this helps to resist close votes. If you feel that the intent of the question is lost, please rollback the edit. – Flaw Aug 24 '16 at 14:40
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          [programming] tag,  BNF
          fundamental rule(s) of a Japanese sentence

This (below) seems pretty good. If there's a similar version (rules for Jp sentence) in English, i'd like to see it.

From http://www5b.biglobe.ne.jp/~shu-sato/nihonbun.htm:

日本語の文の構造

(1) 文 = (連用句)+(体言句)+ 用言句

(2) 用言句 =(連用句)+
               {動詞 または
                形容詞 または
                形容動詞 または
                [名詞句 +(助詞)+「だ」等の助動詞]}
                              +(助動詞)+(終助詞)

(3) 体言句 = 名詞句 +(格助詞)+(副助詞)

(4) 名詞句 = (連体句)+
                {名詞 または
                 [文・用言句 +(準体助詞)]

(5) 連用句 = {副詞 または
           用言句(連用形) または
           [文・用言句 +(接続助詞)]}
                           +(副助詞)

(6) 連体句 = ..................


Knowing these rules immediately helped me parse these sentences:

  1. そのモンスター撃退で経験値は何点来る?

  2. そのモンスター撃退で来る経験値は何点?

      (1) 文 = (連用句)+(体言句)+ [用言句]
    
    1. (連用句)( そのモンスター撃退で ) + (体言句)(経験値は) +(体言句)(何点) + [用言句][来る]?

    2. (体言句)( そのモンスター撃退で来る経験値は ) +(体言句)(何点)? -- ( [用言句] [ですか]? is probably omitted)

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