5

According to JDIC, both mean "observation". Judging from the Kanji used, I'm guessing the difference is 観測 has a nuance of observing something and measuring some aspect of it or taking data, whereas 観察 is just to observe and monitor what's happening.

4

You guess is right. And 観測 can also mean prediction based on the data observed (e.g. 希望的観測).

Some details can be found is the explanation of the two word: 観察 観測

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