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I've noticed that it seems rare to have a long vowel followed by a geminate consonant (っ + consonant). The only example I can think of is when attaching a suffix like 〜って to a word ending in a long vowel (e.g. 東京って). Does this ever occur word-internally in Japanese? If so, is there a list of examples of this?

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Yes, it happens word-internally in Japanese, but it's quite rare. As you probably know, Old Japanese had neither geminate consonants nor long vowels (as far as the best contemporary reconstructions can determine). Pretty much all the geminate consonants in today's Japanese can be traced to (i) more or less well-understood series of changes like the one that turned /omopite/ into modern /omoQte/ "thinking"; (ii) features of vernacular speech like the one that turned /futofara/ into /futoQpara/ "generous"; or (iii) loanwords like /kappa/ "raincoat" (< Portuguese "capa") and /ryuQkusaQku/ "rucksack".

Meanwhile, long vowels are similar: they're mostly places where an intervening consonant was lost (/opo/ -> /oo/ "big"), vernacular features like /kakaa/ "mother", or from loanwords (Japanese pronunciations of Chinese words, basically). (Oh, and I guess you can add onomatopoeia to both those lists of sources, since anything can happen in onomatopoeia.)

So to have a single word which has a long vowel followed by a geminate consonant, you need to have two such places occurring in succession, which is relatively rare but not unheard of. One places you might predict their presence, and be correct, is in the -te form of non-vowel-stem verbs containing a long vowel before an /-u/ or /-ru/ or /-tu/ ending, and indeed this is what you find: /oou/ "cover" or /hooru/ "release", become /ootte/ or /hootte/ respectively.

Similarly, there are plenty of vernacular words (or ex-vernacular words long since accepted into the standard written register) where a long vowel happens to come just before a geminate consonant: /ooQpira/ "open(ly)", /tookyooQko/ "Tokyo native".

(There are probably also loanwords containing this pattern in their original form, although none occur to me right now.)

I'm not aware of any list of words like this. Someone studying a particular type of construction, like the gemination of the second item in compound vernacular words like /ooQpira/, would make such a list to trawl it for unexpected regularities, but a comprehensive list of any /V:Q/ sequences would have so many different types of words in it it's hard to see what use it could be.

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