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I understand that both 大半{たいはん} and 多数派{たすうは} can be translated as "majority". Is there a difference between them in usage or nuance?

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    大半 is about number, 多数派 is about 派 "faction". – broccoli forest Jul 30 '16 at 17:32
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I think the major difference is that 大半{たいはん} means that it must be more than half of the total group, but that 多数派{たすうは} only needs to be the subgroup with the largest number of people.

That is to say in Japanese, 多数派 could be used to translate the English word plurality wherein there is no absolute majority (no one has more than half of the total group), but there is one group that has the largest fraction of the votes.

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