# On the interchangeability of ~ように and ~ために

As I understand, in XようにY X is a state/event that is beyond the control of the subject Y (a certain consequence X will arise as the result of an action Y), while in XためにY, X is an action that can be controlled by the subject of Y.

In some cases then, ~ように and ~ために are interchangeable, such as in the following excample:

1. 学生が勉強する{ために/ように}、先生は毎日宿題を出します。

In this case we can use either of the two since the subject of the main clause (the teacher) is different from that of the subordinate (the students). Therefore, he/she cannot necessarily control the action in the subordinate.

However, given rules above in the following example only ~ために can be used:

1. 新しい車を買う{ために/Xように}、お金を貯めています。

(With the X mark to indicate that it would be wrong).

The question I was not sure how to answer was: "What if instead of 買う with conjugate using 買える and say:

2': 新しい車を買えるように、お金を貯めています。

Would this be correct?"

(Notice that there is no question here about 買えるために).

I think that this makes sense, and it sounds correct to me, but somehow reading the grammar rules confused me a little bit (Maybe 車 would be more correct, as a comment made me think). I would appreciate a confirmation. Thanks.

• 1番の例文「学生が勉強する{ために/ように}、先生は毎日宿題を出します。」では、「ように」を使うのが自然だと思います。（「ために」を使いたいなら「勉強するために学校に行く」とか「勉強するためにXXが必要だ」とか・・・） Jul 12, 2016 at 5:02
• Thanks, that example came straight from a textbook though. Jul 12, 2016 at 5:03
• なんと！ どちらを使っても同じ意味だ、って感じで載ってるんですか？ Jul 12, 2016 at 5:04
• うん、そうです. 引用したら： "In the next example, both ために and ように can be used because the subject of the main clause (i.e., the teacher) is different from that of the subordinate (i.e., the students) and therefore, he/she cannot necessarily control the action in the subordinate clause". Jul 12, 2016 at 5:10
• このサイトですかね・・ → quizlet.com/78661229/jpn-301-lesson-4-flash-cards/original `both ために and ように can be used because the subject of the main clause is different from that of the subordinate`という説明はちょっと変かも・・・。「犬が逃げないように門を閉めておいてください」はいいですが「犬が逃げないために門を閉めておいてください‌​」は変ですし。(←主節と従属節の主語が異なりますよね。)「（私は）犬を逃がさないように /逃がさないために 、門を閉めておいた。」「合格するために/ように頑張ります。」みたいに、主語が同じなら「ために」‌​「ように」の両方使えるような気が・・・。で、上の例文の場合は「学生に勉強させるために毎日先生は宿題を出します」ならいいと思うんですけど・・・(でも「学生に勉強させるように毎日先生は宿題を出します」にすると、また変な感じが・・。なんででしょう・・・😢) Jul 13, 2016 at 4:48

This usage of ように is familiar to me.

• 「新しい車買えるように・・・」のほうがよく使われるということはないですかね・・文法的にはどちらでもよいのでしょうけど。 Jul 12, 2016 at 5:07
• Yeah maybe I wasn't clear enough. In case of switching to 買える I was just asking a confirmation that ように could follow naturally. I was not asking about 買えるために, that indeed sounds not too natural as well to me, but I wouldn't be sure either. Jul 12, 2016 at 5:10
• when non-volitional expressions are combined with ために, it stands for reason. So, 新しい車を買えるために means "because you can buy a new car". Jul 13, 2016 at 6:58

This ように is used as a direction of someone, so I think a potential verb is used like 買えるように. 買うように is used like 私は彼に本を買うように言った(I told him to buy a book.)

This ために is used as reason, so I think a normal verb is used like 買うために.

So:

and

are more natural than:

and

In addition, a potential verb with が is more common than the one with を like: