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食事に求められるものは多々あるー栄養バランスだの、しあわせ感だの、心の交流だのーしかしそのなかでもっとも求められているものは、空腹を満たす、一刻もはやく満たす、ということのはずだが、...rant continues
There are many things that are desired in a meal but, nutritional balance, a happy feeling, a sharing of minds, however among these things the most desired thing is satisfying hunger; satisfying it quickly ということのはずだが...

I'm having trouble understanding the large-scale structure of this sentence. What exactly is ということのはずだ doing?
What is it that is expected (はず)? How does the が in bold fit into it all?
And why is it not two sentences? There seems to be a natural break at しかし.

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「[食事]{しょくじ}に[求]{もと}められるものは[多々]{たた}あるが ー [栄養]{えいよう}バランスだの、しあわせ[感]{かん}だの、[心]{こころ}の[交流]{こうりゅう}だの ー しかし、そのなかでもっとも求められているものは、[空腹]{くうふく}を[満]{み}たす、[一刻]{いっこく}もはやく満たす、ということのはずだが、...rant continues」

The structure of this sentence (or rather this part of the sentence as the sentence still continues) is:

General Preface + 3 Examples to Preface + "but" + Author's Own Opinion

The 「ことのはずだが」 part, together with 「しかし」, would strongly suggest that the author's opinion regarding what one should desire in a meal is different from what the "general public" seem to desire in a meal (these days).

The general public (seem to) want things such as nutritional balance, happy feeling, sharing of minds. etc.

The auhor/speaker thinks that 'filling one's stomach' as quickly as possible is more important than the three examples s/he gives.

What exactly is ということのはずだ doing? What is it that is expected (はず)?

Grammatically, 「ということのはずだ」 nominalizes and emphasizes the verb phrase 「空腹を満たす、一刻もはやく満たす」("to fill one's stomach and do so as quickly as possible") and concludes that that needs to be what people should desire in a meal.

How does the が in bold fit into it all?

「が」, in this sentence, just means something like "and", and not "but". This usage is far more common than the beginning learners might think. It is often a source of misunderstanding for J-learners indeed.

And why is it not two sentences? There seems to be a natural break at しかし.

It could easily have been split into two sentences, but some people just habitually write long sentences.

Strictly speaking, however, this is at least not super-formal writing (it is only mildly formal); therefore, one might expect unnecessarily long sentences. The use of the rather informal 「だの」 three times, to me, already makes this writing non-super-formal.

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