Consider the following sentences.

  • A: 女性に限らず、男性も化粧品を使うようになった。

    My translations:

    A'1: Using cosmetics is not limited to women but also has been started by men.

    A'2: Not only women but also men have started using cosmetics.

    Who started first is ambiguous.

  • B: コンビニは、若者に限らず、お年寄りにも利用者が多い。

    My translations:

    B'1: The end users of convenient stores are not only from young people but also many from old people.

    B'2: The end users of convenient stores are many not only from young people but also from old people.

    Which group has more users is also ambiguous.


Do X and Y have the same state when using ~X にかぎらず Y?

2 Answers 2



When this expression is used, it is generally implied that A is more significant than B. It uses "common sense" as the premise of the statement, which is something humans always do in speaking to others.

To prove this, simply try swapping A for B in each of your sentences and see how the new sentences "feel" to you.



To me, a citizen of Japan, both sentences look to be talking about a place/country so far away that I would not even know its name.


According to this link, it mentions that this grammar point expresses that "Y is not limited by/to X" and that the expression widens the viewpoint of Y. Therefore, in the first example, "女性に限らず、男性も化粧品を使うようになった。", the use of cosmetics is not limited to women and that the concept of using cosmetics is not limited to just women, but also men--meaning that women used cosmetics first (and this is the common viewpoint that the expression is trying to widen).

In the second case, I don't think that this particular expression encompasses the meaning of "which has more" but just that there are also a lot of older people that use convenience stores. Maybe if you want to express "there are more X than Y" then refer to an expression like this.

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