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When I read the following sentence,

少しでも長生きをという願いをかなえるために、医療は目覚ましい進歩を遂げてきた。

I think there is a missing verb as indicated as follows.

少しでも長生きを [missing verb] という願いをかなえるために、医療は目覚ましい進歩を遂げてきた。

Why can を be followed by non-verb? What kind of grammar is being applied here?

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As you have correctly guessed, this と is the quotative particle and the part before it is a quote.

「少しでも長生きを」という願いをかなえるために、医療は目覚ましい進歩を遂げてきた。

A sentence that ends with を is commonly used as an expression which means "We/I/You need/want ~", "Give us ~", "Accomplish ~", etc., depending on the context.

One may say that a verb したい is omitted in this particular case, because 長生き is usually used with する:

「少しでも長生きを(したい)」という願いを…

But I don't think people bother to imagine the omitted verb in a case like this. Perhaps what you have to understand is that the noun mentioned before を is strongly desired.

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