8

I wasn't sure how to properly word the question, but I'm asking how to make sentences such as:

  • "I have lived in America for 10 years."
  • "I will go to Japan for a month."
  • "I have had this job for a year."
  • "I left for a few minutes."
  • "I will leave in an hour."

And so on. How do I structure it?

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    We do not do translations, at least include your attempts even if there are not right BUT do not include google translate attemps because we can see though it. – 永劫回帰 May 5 '16 at 3:07
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    The first four is slightly different from the last one. The difference is also reflected in English (use of "for" as opposed to "in") – Flaw May 5 '16 at 6:24
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    I feel that this isn't exactly a translation/proofreading question. The sentences are incidental, and the intention is not to ask for an ad-hoc check of the sentence or for a particular phrase. It's asking about the grammar required to express duration. Which is probably why the close vote threshold isn't reached yet. – Flaw May 5 '16 at 6:29
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For the first four of your sentences (or, for "for X years / months / days / minutes / seconds"), I would use 「~[間]{かん}」, or just a counter such as 年, ヶ月, 日, 分 with no suffix (~間), or 「~の[間]{あいだ}」 depending on context, as in:

  • アメリカに{[10年間]{じゅうねんかん} / 10年}住んでいます。 I have lived in the US for 10 years.
    (or アメリカに{[住]{す}んで / 住み[始]{はじ}めて}10年になります。 It's been 10 years since I started to live in the US.)
  • 日本に{[2ヶ月間]{にかげつかん} / 2ヶ月}[滞在]{たいざい}します。 I'll stay in Japan for two months.
  • この仕事を{[3年間]{さんねんかん} / 3年}しています。 I have had this job for 3 years.
    (or この仕事{を始めて / に[就]{つ}いて}3年になります。 It's been 3 years since I started this job.)
  • {[数分間]{すうふんかん} / 数分 / 数分の[間]{あいだ}}、[席]{せき}を[離]{はな}れました。 I left for a few minutes.
  • {[2日間]{ふつかかん} / 2日}[待]{ま}ってください。 Please wait for two days.*

*"For one day" is just [1日]{いちにち} and not [1日間]{いちにちかん}, although you can say [2日間]{ふつかかん}, [3日間]{みっかかん}..., and [1年間]{いちねんかん}, [1ヶ月間]{いっかげつかん}, [1分間]{いっぷんかん}, [1秒間]{いちびょうかん}.


For "for X hours" and "for X weeks", you'd normally use 「X時間」「X週間」, as in:

  • [8時間]{はちじかん}寝ました。 I slept for 8 hours. (not 「8時寝ました」 or 「8時間間寝ました」)
  • [1週間]{いっしゅうかん}[留守]{るす}にします。 I'll be away from home for a week. (not 「1週留守にします」 or 「1週間間留守にします」)

For your last sentence, I would use 「~~で」 or 「~~[後]{ご}に」, as in:

  • {[1時間]{いちじかん}[後]{ご}に / ([後]{あと})1時間で}[出]{で}ます。/ [出発]{しゅっぱつ}します。 I'll leave in one hour.
  • {[5分]{ごふん}[後]{ご}に / ([後]{あと})5分で}出ます。/ 出発します。 I'll leave in 5 minutes.
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Although all sentence I can translate.上の4つ for are ~間、only last sentence is 一時間でand see that I edited wikipedia count word.

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